Latest publications:

Čandek-Potokar, M.; Škrlep, M.; Kostyra, E.; Żakowska-Biemans, S.; Poklukar, K.; Batorek-Lukač, N.; Kress, K.; Weiler, U.; Stefanski, V. Quality of Dry-Cured Ham from Entire, Surgically and Immunocastrated Males: Case Study on Kraški Pršut. Animals 2020, 10, 239.

Kress, K.; Weiler, U.; Schmucker, S.; Čandek-Potokar, M.; Vrecl, M.; Fazarinc, G.; Škrlep, M.; Batorek-Lukač, N.; Stefanski, V. Influence of Housing Conditions on Reliability of Immunocastration and Consequences for Growth Performance of Male Pigs. Animals 2020, 10, 27.

Ruiz-Ascacibar, I., Stoll, P., & Bee, G. (2019). Effects of dietary CP and amino acid restriction on the growth dynamics of organs and body components in entire male, castrated and female pigs. Animal, 13(10), 2223-2231.

Ruiz-Ascacibar, I., Stoll, P., Bee, G., & Schlegel, P. (2019). Dynamics of the mineral composition and deposition rates in the empty body of entire males, castrates and female pigs. Animal, 13(5), 950-958.

Ruiz-Ascacibar, I., Stoll, P., Kreuzer, M., & Bee, G. (2019). Dietary CP and amino acid restriction has a different impact on the dynamics of protein, amino acid and fat deposition in entire male, castrated and female pigs. Animal, 13(1), 74-82.

Tretola, M., Maghin, F., Silacci, P., Ampuero, S., & Bee, G. (2019). Effect of Supplementing Hydrolysable Tannins to a Grower-Finisher Diet Containing Divergent PUFA Levels on Growth Performance, Boar Taint Levels in Back Fat and Intestinal Microbiota of Entire Males. Animals (Basel), 9(12).



The IPEMA would like to announce the publication of:

1.Fact sheet: Pork production with entire males

2. Fact sheet: Pork production with immunocastrates

These fact sheets were published in August 2019 by the COST action IPEMA Core Group (Marijke Aluwe, Ge Backus, Giuseppe Bee, Michel Bonneau, Eberhard von Borell, Meta Candek-Potokar, Olena Doran, Maria Font-i –Furnols,  Catherine Larzul,  Martin Sklep, Igor Tomasevic, Liliana  Tudoreanu, Mandes Verhaagh,  Ulrike Weiler). Translations into the national languages of the countries participating in the COST action IPEMA will follow.

Fact sheets in national languages:

1.Fakten zur Schweinefleischproduktion mit Immunkastraten

2.Fakten zur Schweinefleischerzeugung mit Mastebern



1.Fiche d'information Production de porcs immunocastrés

2.Fiche d'information Production de porcs mâles entiers

1.Prireja svinjine z imunokastracijo

2.Prireja svinjine z merjaščki

1. Varkensvleesproductie met immunocastraten

2.Varkensvleesproductie met intacte beren

1.Proizvodnja svinjskog mesa od imunokastrata

2. Proizvodnja svinjskog mesa od nekastriranih nerastova

1. Производња свињског меса од имунокастрата

2. Производња свињског меса од нерастова

1. Producción de carne de cerdo con inmunocastrados

2. Producción de carne de cerdo con machos enteros

1.Producció de carn de porc amb immunocastrats

2. Producció de carn de porc amb mascles enters


Sustainability of Pork Production with Immunocastration in Europe

Kevin Kress, Sam Millet , Étienne Labussière, Ulrike Weiler and Volker Stefanski

Abstract: Immunocastration, a technique to replace surgical castration of piglets, consists of two consecutive vaccinations to induce antibodies which transiently suppress testicular functions and
avoid boar taint. It is a method to ensure both a high product quality and a high level of animal welfare. The impact of immunocastration on the three pillars of sustainability has been studied
extensively. While all aspects of sustainability have been studied separately, however, a contemporary global overview of di erent aspects is missing. In immunocastrates, performance results are better
than in barrows, but worse than in boars. The environmental impact of pork production with immunocastrates is lower than with barrows, but higher than with boars. The level of aggression is
considerably lower in immunocastrates compared to boars. Societal concerns are mainly related to food safety, and are not supported by scientific evidence. After second vaccination, immunocastrates
switch from a boar- to a barrow-like status. Therefore, the timing of second vaccination is a fine-tuning tool to balance advantages of boars with environmental and economic benefits against increased
risk of welfare problems and boar taint. Nevertheless, both synergic and conflicting relationships between the pillars of sustainability must be communicated along the value chain to produce tailored pork products.
pork products.


Created and published list of feed ingredients with boar taint reducing capacities (WG2)

This report represents Deliverable #2 of the action and was written under the direction of Ulrike Weiler and Michel Bonneau, the chair and vice-chair, respectively, of the COST Action CA 15215 with acronym IPEMA
The contributors are:
Zamaratskaia, Galia; Maribo, Hanne; Canibe, Nuria; Milet, Sam; Quiniou, Natalie; Bee, Guiseppe

Full paper available at:

Knowledge gaps in pork production with entire males and immunocastrates
This report represents Deliverable #1 of the action and was written under the direction of Ulrike Weiler and Michel Bonneau, the chair and vice-chair, respectively, of the COST Action CA 15215 with acronym IPEMA
The contributors are (by alphabetical order):
Marijke Aluwé, ILVO, Belgium; Giuseppe Bee, Agroscope, Switzerland; Michel Bonneau, IFIP, France; Marjeta Čandek-Potokar, KIS, Slovenia; Olena Doran, UWE, UK; Maria Font-i-Furnols, IRTA, Spain; Katharina Hoelzle, Universität Hohenheim, Germany; Catherine Larzul, INRA, France; Martin Škrlep, KIS, Slovenia; Eberhardt von Borell, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg;
Ulrike Weiler, Universität Hohenheim, Germany
Please refer to this work as:
Weiler U., Larzul C., Bee G., von Borell E., Font-i-Furnols M., Škrlep M., Aluwé M., Doran O., Čandek-Potokar M., Hoelzle K., Bonneau M., 2018. Knowledge gaps in pork production with entire males and immunocastrates. Deliverable 1 of Cost Action 15215 IPEMA, Innovative Approaches for Pork Production with Entire Males.

Full paper available at:

Consumer acceptance of minced meat patties from boars in four European countries

M. Aluwé,M. Aaslyng, G. Backus, M. Bonneau, P. Chevillon, J.-E. Haugen, L. Meier-Dinkel, D. Mörlein, M.A. Oliver, H.M. Snoek, F.A.M. Tuyttens, M. Font-i-Furnols, 2018. Meat Science, Summaries of the paper in Catalan, Danish, Dutch, English, French and Spanish are available on this website (page Summaries Nat. Lang.) The paper is available for free until January 27th 2018, using the following share link:

Potential sensitivity of pork production situations aiming at high-quality products to the use of entire male pigs as an alternative to surgical castrates

M. Bonneau, M. Čandek-Potokar, M. Škrlep, M. Font-i-Furnols, M. Aluwé, The Castrum network, L. Fontanesi, 2017. Animal, doi:10.1017/S1751731117003044 Summaries of the paper in 22 languages are available on this website (page Summaries Nat. Lang.)

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Immunocastration as Alternative to Surgical Castration in Pigs

Marjeta Čandek-Potokar, Martin Škrlep, Galia Zamaratskaia, 2017. Theriogenology, Dr. Rita Payan Carreira (Ed.), InTech, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68650. Available from:

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Attitudes of Serbian food technology students towards surgical and immunocastration of boars and their sensitivity to androstenone and skatole

Tomasevic I., Đekić I., Font-i-Furnols M., Aluwé M., Čandek-Potokar M., Bonneau M., Weiler U., 2017. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Sciences, 85, conference 1. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/85/1/012087,

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